1st picture - DPFFA means Detașamentul de Protecție a Forței din Forțele Aeriene - Air Force Force Protection Detachment
2nd picture - same thing earlier deployment
4th is indeed Gendarmerie, but it's not military police, they belong to the Ministry of Interior, like the Police. They usually deal with riots, public order, stuff like that. They advise Afghan police.
7th is US but I've seen some Romanian air force advisors wearing it..
9th is Romanian General Staff
10th ECMFA - Echipa de Consilieri Mentenanță Forțe Aeriene - Air Force Maintenance Advisor Team, integrated in the 738th Air Expeditionary Advisory Group
12th is standard paratrooper patch
13th is Navy Special Operations Group
14th is some speciality in Gendarmerie, there is something similar in French Gendarmerie
15th morale patch, I've seen it worn by Gendarmerie advisors
16th is the 3rd Company, 300th Infantry Battalion 2019 deployment, Kandahar